Molecular Testing Labs provides our laboratory reports based on our genetic testing results and published scientific studies. Fitness and nutrition advice is often complicated and contradictory. MTL is on a mission to help identify what individuals can do to get fit, eat right, and improve their overall wellness. Below is a list of scientific studies and evidence the MTL team references to understand how DNA affects an individual’s response to exercise and nutrition. Ahima, R. S., & Antwi, D. A. (2008). “Brain regulation of appetite and satiety.” Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America, 37(4), 811-823. Ahn, J., Yu, K., Stolzenberg-Solomon, R., et al. (2010). “Genome-wide association of circulating vitamin D levels.” Human Molecular Genetics, 19 (13), 2739-2745. Alfred, T., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Cooper, R., et al. (2011). “ACTN3 genotype, athletic status, and life course physical capability: meta-analysis of the published literature and findings from nine studies.” Human Genome Variation Society: Human Mutation, 32(9), 1008-1018. AlSaleh, A., O’Dell, S.D., Frost, G.S., et al. (2011). “Single nucleotide polymorphisms at the ADIPOQ gene locus interact with age and dietary intake of fat to determine serum adiponectin in subjects at risk of the metabolic syndrome.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94, 262–269. AlSaleh, A., Sanders, T.A.B., & O’Dell, S. (2012). “Postgraduate symposium: Effect of interaction between PPAARG, PPARA and ADIPOQ gene variants and dietary fatty acids on plasma lipid profile and diponectic concentration in a large intervention study.” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 71, 141-153. Anantharaman, D., Chabriere, A., Gaborieau, V., et al. (2014). “Genetic variants in nicotine addiction and alcohol metabolism genes, oral cancer risk and the propensity to smoke and drink alcohol: a replication study in India.” PLoS One, 9(2), e88240. Andreasen, C. H., Stender-Petersen, K. L., Mogensen, M. S., Torekov, S. S., Wegner, L., Andersen, G., … & Hansen, T. (2008). “Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation.” Diabetes, 57(1), 95-101. Ariza, M., Garolera, M., Jurado, M.A., et al. (2012). “Dopamine genes (DRD2/ANKK1-TaqA1 and DRD4-7R) and executive function: their interaction with obesity.” PLoS One, 7(7), e41482. Arrizabalaga, M., Larrarte, E., Margareto, J., et al. (2014) “Preliminary findings on the influence of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 polymorphisms on resting energy expenditure, leptin and thyrotropin levels in obese non-morbid premenopausal women.” Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry, 70(1):255-62. Ayyappa, K.A., Ghosh, S., Mohan, V., & Radha, V. (2013). “Association of Hepatic Lipase Gene Polymorphisms with Hypertriglyceridemia and Low High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Levels Among South Indian Subjects Without Diabetes.” Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 15 (6), 503- 512. Barroso, I., Gurnell, M., Crowley, V. E. F., Agostini, M., Schwabe, J. W., Soos, M. A., … & O’Rahilly, S. (1999). “Dominant negative mutations in human PPARγ associated with severe insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.” Nature, 402(6764), 880-883. Berman, Y., North, K.N. (2010) “A Gene for Speed: The Emerging Role of α-Actinin-3 in Muscle Metabolism.” Physiology (Bethesda), 25(4):250-9. Bersaglieri, T., Sabeti, P.D., Patterson, N., et al. (2004). “Genetic signatures of strong recent positive selection at the lactase gene.” American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 1111-1120. Bjorndal, B., Brattelid, T., Strand, E., et al. (2013). “Fish oil and the Pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid affect the amino acid and carnitine metabolism in rats.” PLoS One, 8(6), e66926. Braun, W. & Sforzo, G. (2011). “Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).” American College of Sports Medicine. Bravard, A., Vial, G., Chauvin, M.A., et al. (2014). “FTO contributes to hepatic metabolism regulation through regulation of leptin action and STAT3 signaling in liver.” Cell Communication and Signaling, 12 (4), 1-13. Bouchard, L., Drapeau, V., Provencher, V., et al. (2004). “Neuromedin Beta: a strong candidate gene linking eating behaviors and susceptibility to obesity.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 1478–86. Brinkley, T.E., Halverstadt, A., Phares, D.A et al. (2011). “Hepatic lipase gene -514C>T variant is associated with exercise training-induced changes in VLDL and HDL by lipoprotein lipase.” Journal of Applied Physiology, 111, 1871–1876. Brunkwall, L., Ericson, U., Hellstrand, S., et al. (2012). “Genetic variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) in association with food preferences in healthy adults.” Food and Nutrition Research, 57, 20028. Burgdörfer, E., Korenkov, M., Jonas, D., et al. (2013). “FTO and INSIG2 genotyping combined with metabolic and anthropometric phenotyping of morbidly obese patients.” Molecular Syndromology, 4, 273-279. Cleary, M.A., Kimura, I.F., Sitler, M.R., & Kendrick, Z.V. (2002). “Temporal pattern of the repeated bout effect of eccentric exercise on delayedonset muscle soreness.” Journal of Athletic Training, 37(1), 32-36. Corella, D., Peloso, G., Arnett, D.K., et al. (2009). “APOA2, dietary fat and body mass index: Replication of a gene-diet interaction in three independent populations.” Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(20), 1897–1906. Crawford, A., Dalvie, S., Lewis, S., et al. (2014). “Haplotype-based study of the association of alcohol and acetaldehyde-metabolising genes with alcohol dependence (with or without comorbid anxiety symptoms) in a Cape mixed ancestry population.” Metabolic Brain Disorders, 29(2):333- 40. Deeb, S.S., Fajas, L., Nemoto, M., Pihlajamaki, J., Mykkanen, L., Kuusisto, J., Laakso, M., Fujimoto, W., & Auwerx, J. (1998). “A Pro12Ala substitution in PPARgamma2 associated with decreased receptor activity, lower body mass index and improved insulin sensitivity.” Nature Genetics, 20(3), 284-287. Dotson, C.D., Shaw, H.L., Mitchell, B.D., et al. (2010). “Variation in the gene TAS2R38 is associated with the eating behavior disinhibition in Old Order Amish women.” Appetite, 54(1), 93–99. Dougkas, A., Yaqoob, P., Givens, D.I., et al. (2013). “The impact of obesity-related SNP on appetite and energy intake.” British Journal of Nutrition , 110, 1151-1156. Duell, E.J., Lujan-Barroso, L., Llivina, C., et al. (2013). “Vitamin C transporter gene (SLC23A1 and SLC23A2) polymorphisms, plasma vitamin C levels, and gastric cancer risk in the EPIC cohort.” Genes and Nutrition, 8, 549-560. Engeli, S., Birkenfeld, A.L., Badin, P-M., et al. (2012). “Natriuretic peptides enhance the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 122(12), 4675-4679. Eynon, N., Meckel, Y., Alves, A.J., et al. (2009). “Is there an interaction between PPARD T294C and PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphisms and human endurance performance?” Experimental Physiology, 94(11), 1147-1152. Eynon, N., Meckel, M., Sagiv, M., et al. (2010). “Do PPARGC1A and PPARalpha polymorphisms influence sprint or endurance phenotypes?” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, e145-e150. Eynon, N., Ruiz, J.R., Femia, P., et al. (2012). “The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism across three groups of elite male European athletes.” PLoS One, 7(8), e43132. Feeney, E., O’Brien, S., Scannell, A., et al. (2010). “Genetic variation in taste perception: does it have a role in healthy eating?” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 70, 135-143. Ferrucci, L., Perry, J.R.B., Matteini, A., et al. (2009). “Common variation in the beta-carotene 15, 15’-monooxygenase 1 gene affects circulating levels of carotenoids: A genome-wide association study.” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 84, 123-133. Franks, P.W., Christophi, C.A., Jablonski, K.A., et al. (2014). “Commong variation at PPARGC1A/B and change in body composition and metabolic traits following preventive interventions: the Diabetes Prevention Program.” Diabetologia, 57, 485-490. Fushan, A., Simons, C.T., Slack, J.P., et al. (2009). “Allelic polymorphism within the TAS1R3 promoter is associated with human taste sensitivity to sucrose.” Current Biology, 19 (15), 1288-1293. Gacesa, J.Z.P., Secher, N.H., Momcilovic, M., Grujic, N.G. (2013). “Association between intramuscular fat in the arm following arm training and INSIG2.” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 1-6. Garcia-Rios, A., Delgado-Lista, J., Perez-Martinez, P., et al. (2011). “Genetic variations at the lipoprotein lipase gene influence plasma lipid concentrations and interact with plasma n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids to modulate lipid metabolism.” Atherosclerosis, 218(2011), 416-422. Garenc, C., Perusse, L., Bergeron, J., et al. (2001). “Evidence of LPL gene-exercise interaction for body fat and LPL activity: the HERITAGE Family Study.” Journal of Applied Physiology, 91. 1334-1340. Gillingham, L.G., Harding, S.V., Rideout, T.C., et al. (2013). “Dietary oils and FADS1-FADS2 genetic variants modulate [13C] alpha-linolenic acid metabolism and plasma fatty acid composition.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97, 195–207. Gliottoni, R.C. & Motl, R.W. (2008). “Effect of caffeine on leg-muscle pain during intense cycling exercise: possible role of anxiety sensitivity.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 18, 103-115. Goyenechea, E., Collins, L.J., Parra, D., et al. (2008). “The − 11391 G / A Polymorphism of the Adiponectin Gene Promoter is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Traits and the Outcome of an Energy-restricted Diet in Obese Subjects.” Hormone and Metabolic Research, 41, 55 – 61. Grarup, N., Sulem, P., Sandholt, C.H., et al. (2013). “Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large data sets.” PLoS Genetics, 9(6), e1003530. Guessous, I., Dobrinas, M., Kutalik, Z., et al. (2012). “Caffeine intake and CYP1A2 variants associated with high caffeine intake protect nonsmokers from hypertension.” Human Molecular Genetics, 21 (14), 3283–3292. Hagberg, J. M., Rankinen, T., Loos, R. J., Pérusse, L., Roth, S. M., Wolfarth, B., & Bouchard, C. (2011). “Advances in Exercise, Fitness, and Performance Genomics in 2010 (Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise).” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(5), 743. Hazra, A., Kraft, P., Selhub, J., et al. (2008). “Common variants of FUT2 are associated with plasma vitamin B12 levels.” Nature Genetics, 40(10), 1160-1162. Hellstrand, S., Sonestedt, E., Ericson, U., et al. (2012). “Intake levels of dietary long-chain PUFAs modify the association between genetic variation in FADS and LDL-C,” Journal of Lipid Research, 53, 1183-1189. Hess, M.E. & Brüning, J.C. (2014). “The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene: Obesity and beyond?” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1-9. Hokanson, J.E., Cheng, S., Snell-Bergeon, J.K., et al. (2002). “A common promoter polymorphism in the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC-480C>T) is associated with an increase in coronary calcification in type 1 diabetes.” Diabetes, 51, 1208-1213. Hong, S.H., Kwak, J.H., Paik, J.K., et al. (2013). “Association of polymorphisms in FADS gene with age-related changes in serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged nonobese men.” Dovepress: Clinical Interventions in Aging, 8, 585-596. Ignite Play. “Genes & Weight.” Ignite Playaccessed online 2014 10 24 at: http://www.igniteplay.com/dna-testing/genes-weight/ Itoh, K., Ochi, H., & Kitakoji, H. (2008). “Effects of tender point acupuncture on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) – a pragmatic trial.” Chinese Medicine, 3(18). Jaaskelainen, A., Schwab, U., Kolehmainen, M., et al. (2013). “Meal frequencies modify the effect of common genetic variants on body mass index in adolescents of the Northern Finland birth cohort 1986.” PLoS One, 8 (9), 1-7. Jung, M.E., Bourne, J.E., Little, J.P. (2014). “Where Does HIT Fit? An Examination of the Affective Response to High-Intensity Intervals in Comparison to Continuous Moderate- and Continuous Vigorous-Intensity Exercise in the Exercise Intensity-Affect Continuum.” PLoS One, 9(12):e114541. Junyent, M., Parnell, L.D., Lai, C.Q., et al. (2009). “Novel variants at KCTD10, MVK, and MMAB genes interact with dietary carbohydrates to modulate HDL-cholesterol concentrations in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90, 686-694. Kadowaki, T., Hara, K., Kubota, N., Tobe, K., Terauchi, Y., Yamauchi, T., Eto, K., Kadowaki, H., Noda, M., Hagura, R., & Akanuma, Y. (2002). “The role of PPARgamma in high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.” Journal of Diabetes Complications, 16 (1), 41-45. Karra, E., O’Daly, O.G., Choudhury, A.I., et al. (2013). “A link between FTO, ghrelin, and impaired brain food-cue responsivity.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 123(8), 3539-3551. Kedenko, L., Lamina, C., Kiesslich, T., Kapur, K., Bergmann, S., Waterworth, D., Heid, I.M., Wichmann, H.E., Kedenko, I., Kronenberg, F., & Paulweber, B. (2012). “Genetic polymorphisms of the main transcription factors for adiponectin gene promoter in regulation of adiponectin levels: Association analysis in three European cohorts.” PLOS ONE, 7 (12), e52497. Kim, D-J., Choi, I-G., Park, B.L., et al. (2007). “Major genetic components underlying alcoholism in Korean population.” Human Molecular Genetics, 17(6), 854-858. Koo, G.H., Woo, J., Kang, S., & Shin, K.O. (2014). “Effects of supplementation with BCAA and L-glutamine on blood fatigue factors and cytokines in juvenile athletes submitted to maximal intensity rowing performance.” Journal of Physical Therapy Sciences, 26, 1241-1246. Leung, W.C., Hessel, S., Meplan, C., et al. (2008). “Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene ecoding beta-carotene 15, 15’- monoxygenase alter beta-carotene metabolism in female volunteers.” The FASEB Journal, 1041-1053. Liang, S., Zhou, Y., Wang, H., et al. (2014). “The effect of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in the folic acid pathway genes on homocysteine metabolism.” BioMed Research International, 2014, 1-9. Lietz, G., Oxley, A., Leung, W., & Hesketh, J. (2012). “Single nucleotide polymorphisms upstream from the beta-carotene 15, 15’-monoxygenase gene influence provitamin A conversion efficiency in female volunteers.” The Journal of Nutrition, 142, 161S–165S Lipof, J.S., Clifford, H., Norrell, K.N., et al. (2013). “A variant in SLC30A8 gene is associated with skeletal muscle size and damage in young men.” ORS Annual Meeting, paper number 0045. Lopez-Rios, L., Novoa, F.J., Chirino, R., et al. 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